Other imperial European powers would advocate against the conflict, but ultimately choose a side. In Sylvia L. Hilton’s and Steve J. S. Ickringill’s European Perceptions of the Spanish-American War of 1898, both authors convey an understanding that intense negotiations and agreements among prominent European powers suggested a pan-European opinion in favour of a peaceful solution to the conflict in order to prevent American military intervention and any significant change to the international balance of power. Even the Vatican, led by Pope Leo XIII, attempted to appeal to President Mckinley to prevent war, yet later sympathized with Cuban independence efforts and understood the negatives of Spanish misrule. The Dutch East Indies, Great Britain, Russia, and the Netherlands began supporting U.S. war efforts as they were understood to be on the behalf of Cuban independence goals and disrupted the colonial power of one of their European adversaries. While Germany remained divided, France, Portugal, and Austria viewed the conflict as unnecessary American intervention into the internal affairs of Spain and a possible disruption of the status quo toward the dominance of European imperial powers. The United States victory against Spain would propel the country into becoming a major international player.
After the acquisition of the Philippines, American interest in the east began to expand. The U.S. would support the protection of equal opportunity for all nations to trade and invest in China. When the Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904, officially the U.S. was neutral, but made little attempt to disguise pro Japanese feelings. Roosevelt would be asked to mediate a settlement and although he was successful at gaining a truce, even winning a noble peace prize, the Japanese would be angered that better terms such as territorial adjustments were not made. Roosevelt would also develop a new policy to never allow European intervention in North and South America after the blockade of Venezuela, by British, German, and Italian navies due to massive debts to European creditors. At the off set of hostile American public opinion, the European governments agreed to submit their grievances to arbitration. These are just a few examples of how the United States new global position after the Spanish American War allowed the nation to maintain dominance in the Western Hemisphere.